Media used in Advertising

1) Television


  • It is usually very attractive and entertaining, hence difficult to ignore.
  • It appeals to both the literate and illiterate and is viewed by all irrespective of age, gender etc.
  • The combination of visual and audio effects and dramatization makes it very effective.
  • Advertisements can be aired at the most appropriate time when the targeted audience is most likely to be reached.


  • Television sets are generally expensive and out of reach for many Kenyans.
  • It is a costly medium to use.
  • It may be affected adversely by mechanical break downs, power failures and unfavorable weather conditions which make reception poor.
  • Viewing is limited to areas with electricity or people who can afford batteries.
  • The advertisements may not appeal to all the viewers due to age, gender or cultural bias.
  • Coverage is not so large compared to other means.

2) Newspaper, magazines and trade journals


  • Newspapers have a wide circulation, appropriate for businesses operating nationwide.
  • They are relatively cheap for the reading public.
  • Some newspapers are published in local languages.
  • Many magazines aim at reaching specific population groups. These suits the needs of advertisers who wish to reach these groups.
  • Messages in newspapers and magazines have an aspect of permanence which radio and television advertisement do not have
  • Some magazines are quite informative and entertaining, hence attracting a wide readership


  • Newspapers which have a national circulation are not effective in targeting specific groups.
  • Illiterate consumers may not be reached.
  • Newspapers have a short life span for each edition e.g. it is very unlikely for people to read past newspapers
  • Some magazines are quite expensive, hence have a limited readership.
  • Readers may ignore the advertisements altogether due to familiarity or they may just be interested in specific information due to lack of time.

3) Billboards


  • They are attractive. They therefore catch the attention of prospective customers easily.
  • They have a fairly long span.
  • Their reach is wide. So many people get to see them.
  • Some are modified to rotate in order to accommodate more than one advertisement.
  • Many people can view them at one time.


  • Some may require security to avoid vandalism.
  • They are expensive to design, put up and maintain.
  • Interferes with the environment (space) by being unsightly and causing unnecessary obstruction of general view.
  • They may be ignored by busy motorists.

4) Internet

5) Posters


  • The pictures are appealing to the illiterate
  • They reach many people as they can easily be distributed.
  • They are cheap to produce.
  • A mixture of colour can be used to target a certain geographical region i.e. can be localized.
  • They can stay for a long period of time if they are not interfered with.


  • Permission may be required to put them up. Most of areas have posters warnings.
  • They have a very short life as they hardly last for more than a few days due to some harsh weather conditions.
  • They make the areas in which they are put up untidy.
  • They are easily ignored by busy people as they are silent.
  • They do not appeal to illiterate people
  • They are brief

6) Radio


  • Many people own radios hence radio advertisement have a very wide reach.
  • Radios are used by a large number of people meaning the reach of the advertisement will be multiplied.
  • Radios advertisements can be made entertaining thus hold the attention of the intended audience.
  • The advertisements can be broadcast in many local languages to increase the research even further.
  • If a catchy, familiar tune is used with the advertisement, the listeners tend to internalize it.


  • Poor timing may lead to the advertisements being missed by the desired target group.
  • It is expensive especially so when they are aired at prime time and if they are lengthy.
  • It could be a source of irritation to the listeners of popular programmers especially if aired in the middle of the programmes or if they take too long. This irritation may distract the audience from advertisement.
  • Radio transmission may be interrupted by poor weather or mechanical breakdowns, making the advertisement less effective.
  • The advent of many radio stations makes advertising expensive as one may have place advertisements in all of them if the product being advertised is meant for the general public.

7) Exhibitions

8) Videos

9) Slide

10Transport (vehicles)

11. Ad post-notice boards along major streets

12. Ad shells-shelter places with roofing; waiting bays for vehicles.

13. Bronchures – small booklets containing pictures and information about a product or a service.

14. Cinema – used to transmit visual and sound messages about products before the start of a show, at the interval, and at the end of the show. It is done at cinema theatres and at mobile cinema shows which are common in rural areas.

15. Neon signs

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