Topic 9: The Role of Government in community Development


TOPIC 9
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMNT
Specific objective
By the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:
1. Discuss the meaning of central and local government.
2. Discuss the reason for government involvement in community development activities.
3. Discuss how the government gets involved in community development activities.
4. Discuss the role of various government agencies in community development activities.
5. Discuss the impact of government involvement in community development activities.

INTRODUCTION
Since independence the government has taken the central place in community development.Kenyan`s 1st development policy (sectional paper no 10 of 1965) identifies the elimination of ignorance, diseases and poverty as the key areas of focus.
The aim was to promote attainment and sustainable of high level of economic growth as a means of dealing with these social concern. The government is therefore the supreme executive and administrative organ of the state

Arms of the government
These are the various institutions which set the framework for cooperation and formulate rules.
They do not work in harmony as they compete for resources that they use to get and maintain the area of influence e.g. in decision making

MEANING OF CENTRAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Central Government
It is comprised of all ministries created under the constitution, designed to deliver services to the citizens. It is headed by the president.

The local government
It is an institution of the government that enforces the authority dedicated to it by their central government.
It comprises the decision that are made at the district level and civil levels
Its authority is to co-ordinate activities of its area of jurisdiction.
It is only within the limits of its areas that its authority can be ascertained.

Roles of local government
1. Alteration of boundaries of local areas e.g. districts
2. Approving a variety of minor statutory matters e.g. authorizing changes for the purpose in which trust-land is used.
3. Is a representative for policy issues relating to the structure and constitution of their institutions
4. Technological development-the government protects local and domestic market.

Characteristics of the government
1. Total authority over involuntary membership i.e. rules and laws set by the government apply equally to all members of the society
2. Authorization rules-its rules are superior to all other rules of other organizations within level outside its territorial boundaries. Its rules have to prevail/supersede when there is conflict with other organs.
3. Monopoly of life and death principle i.e. it can imprison, punish or even execute violators of law.
4. Technological development-government protect demolished local markets during their initial periods of growth by providing low cost longtime finance to promote capital investment and restricting importation of foreign technologies.
5. Safe guarding the interest of future generation by planning for socially optimum (sustainable) development, innovation and utilization of available resources.
6. Death of infrastructure-it provides the necessary infrastructure and creates opportunity for growth e.g. educating, training power, transport and communication.
7. Ensuring a stable environment both politically in terms of security.
8. National policy for promoting and supporting local enterprise e.g. small and medium enterprises to protect local producers e.g. through subsidies.
9. Facilitating the mobilization and redistribution of national resources for development.
10. Provision for employment
11. Maintaining proper management of the economy.
12. Strengthening relationship with development partners.

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Central bank
• Through the monetary policy it furnishes the economy with money supply
• Maintains stability in the micro-economy by keeping inflation and interest rates low and ensuring competitive exchange rates
• Increase/enhance access of the rural ports financial resources
Reasons for government involvement in community development activities
1. Creation of employment
2. Promotion of good governance
3. Economic growth and integration
4. Poverty reduction and eradication

WAYS IN WHICH THE GOVERNMENT IS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

ROLE OF VARIOUS GOVERNMENTS

1) The executive
This is concerned with governance and administration

Roles of the executive
1. It is the chief organ for making laws and it’s comprised of
a) The president
b) The prime minister
c) Ministers
The head of the state is the representative and guardian of the countries interest, the executive is therefore also responsible for hiring and firing citizens in a given position
2.) Legislature
This is the chief organ for making laws and comprises of the parliamentarians, it seta guidelines and procedures for implementing decions
3. Judiciary
This is the chief interpreter of decisions for and into the society, it comprises of the courts and its personnel
It ensures that the actions of all conform with the wishes the society (law and order is maintained)

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