**Introduction**

Thermodynamics deals with the relationships of work, heat and energy. Finally, fluid mechanics deals with fluids in motion and hydraulic machines e.g. pumps. This section is covered and tested as a paper in the final stage.

The instructional approach will emphasize on experiments, industrial visits and analysis of various engineering concepts.

### TOPICS COVERED:

### Introduction to Fundamentals of Thermo-Dynamics

- Definitions of terms:
- Thermodynamic systems
- Types of working fluids
- Types of thermodynamic processes
- Thermodynamic cycles
- Definition of work
- Statement of the first law of thermodynamics

### Steady Flow Processes

- Derivation of steady flow energy equation (S. F. E. E)
- Application of the S. F. E. E.
- Calculation of work, heat transfer, changes in internal energy, and enthalpy

### Non-Flow Processes

- Non-flow energy equation (N.F. E. E.)
- Apply the N. F. E. E. for a gas and vapour processes

### Perfect Gases

- Boyle’s law
- Charles’ law
- Derive the characteristic gas equation
- Solution of problems using characteristic gas equation the equation
- Definition of specific heats, universal gas constant, and specific gas constant
- Boyle’s law experiment
- Charles’ law experiment
- Joule’s law experiment

### Steam

- Steam generation
- PV diagram
- TS diagram
- Identification of different regions on the PV diagram
- Definition of different conditions of steam
- Area under the – P-V diagram
- Determination of dryness fraction
- Experiments on pressure and boiling point
- Experiment on energy balance

### Thermodynamic Reversibility and Entropy

- Criteria for reversibility
- Internal reversibility
- Explanation of the principle of the heat engine.
- Second law of thermodynamics
- Thermal efficiency
- Carnot cycle
- Net work
- Net heat
- Area under the T-S diagram

### Ideal Gas Cycle

- Explanations of the different gas cycles
- Air standard efficiency
- Work done
- Heat received or rejected
- Compression ratio
- Mean effective pressure
- Maximum cycle temperatures

### Fuels and Combustion

- Classifications of fuels
- Properties of fuels
- Definition of combustions terminologies
- Application of the equations to solve combustion and exhaust gas problems
- Determination of calorific value of fuel.
- Analysis of products of combustion

### Heat Transfer

- Application of the conduction equations
- Derivation of the heat transfer equations
- Application of the heat transfer equations to solve related problems

### Heat Exchangers

- Classification
- Description of various types of recuperative heat exchangers
- Derivation of heat exchanger equations
- Application of the equations
- Heat exchanger experiments

### Air Compressors

- Classification
- Types of compressors
- Derivations of equations of reciprocating compressors
- Applications of the equations of reciprocating compressors
- Air compressor experiments

### Gas Turbines

- Theoretical cycle
- Open gas turbine unit
- Closed gas turbine unit
- Plant diagram
- T-S diagram
- Thermal efficiency
- Derivation of gas turbine equations
- Modifications of the basic cycle
- Applications of the gas turbine equations

### Impulse Steam Turbines

- Principle of operation.
- Compounding
- Multi stage impulse turbine
- Derivation of related equations
- Optimum operating conditions
- Steam turbine experiments
- Mechanical efficiency
- Specific fuel consumption
- Specific steam consumption

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