- Environmental analysis and marketing research-this usually involves monitoring and adapting to external factors that affect success or failure such as the economy and competition and collecting data to resolve specific marketing issues.
- Broadening an organizations/individuals scope-this involves deciding on the emphasis to place as well as the approach to take on societal issues and international marketing.
- Consumer analysis-this involves examining and evaluating consumer characteristic needs and purchase processes; and selecting the group(s) of consumers at which to aim marketing efforts.
- Product planning-this includes goods, services, organizations people, places, and ideas-developing and maintaining products, product assortments (a set of all products and items that a particular seller offers for sale to buyers),product images, brands, packaging and optional features and deleting faltering products.
- Distribution planning-this involves forming relations with distribution intermediaries, physical distribution, inventory management, warehousing, transportation, the allocation of goods and services, wholesale and retailing.
- Promotion planning-this involves communicating with customers, the general public and others through some form of advertising, public relations, personal selling and or sales promotion.
- Price planning-this involves determining price level and ranges, pricing techniques, terms of purchase, price adjustments and the use of price as a active or passive factor.
- Marketing management-this involve planning, implementing, and controlling the marketing program(strategy) and individual marketing functions; appraising the risks and benefits in decision making; and focusing on total quality.
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