Special Uses of Public Relations
- Special areas of public relations
- Distinction between the special areas of public relations
Refer to possible interaction groups within the organization. They include;
- Formal groups
- Informal groups
- INFORMAL GROUPS
Refer to employees local arrangements within the work station for their own personal benefits and indirectly have little or no benefits to the organization .Example include Merry go round and Chamas. They aim at;
- Improving living standards of the members
- Boosting employees financial position
- Improving employee’s living standards through common pool of resources.
- Educating the members on empowerment
- Uniting the members through sharing common interest.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL GROUPS
- Mostly its formed to benefit the members
- Continuity of the group depends on the members.
- Group objectives are very flexible in case of making adjustments
- Leadership mostly depends on fame and majority likes and not education level.
- Mostly they are not registered hence not recognized outside organization.
- FORMAL GROUPS
Refer to official groups which every employee within the organization should join e.g. organization welfare, employee Unions, Committee membership etc.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMAL GROUPS
- The group has governing rules and regulation outlined in the constitution.
- The group has specific objectives and deadlines which can only be adjusted upon agreement by committee.
- The group benefits is mostly to the organization in general and little benefits to individuals
- They are registered hence recognized within and outside the organization
- The group leaders have specific duties outlined to them
- Continuity of the group does not depend on dismissal/retirement of a member
- Leadership position depends on education level and experience.
FACTORS THAT INFLUNCE AN INDIVIDUAL ON THE GROUP TO JOIN
- Financial position of an individual (i.e. employer or employee)-different groups have different financial obligation to honor hence an individual should join depending on financial ability
- Group objectives/benefits- different groups have different activities hence one should join the group that best satisfy individual expectation.
- Job position- An individual may be influenced by job position on the group to join because it influences individual fitness in the group in terms of contributing suggestions, interacting with other members, gaining respect etc
- Education level-for formal organization education level contribute especially on leadership where individuals may be appointed as a result of education level
- Size of the organization-well-paying organizations contributes to success of groups and vice versa.
BENEFITS OF BOTH FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS
- There is individual empowerment e.g. financially, skills ,experience etc
- Promotes unity through interactions, sharing common interest etc.
- Improves relations among members
DISADVANTAGES OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS
- Informal groups consume organization working hours yet they are of little or no benefits to the organization.
- Informal groups may bring division within the organization especially between members and non- members.
- Depending on their objectives, achievements and challenges they may affects corporate image negatively.
- Formal groups are of little benefits to the members
- Financial losses to members due to mismanagement of funds by corrupt leaders
WAYS FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS PROMOTE HUMAN RELATIONS IN AN ORGANIZATION
- Sharing of information hence promoting togetherness.
- Promotes work morale because individuals are able to fit in the workplace.
- Interactions among the members on social activities promotes healthy environment within organization.
- Completing employee living standards which employer is not able to provide.
- Facilitates togetherness which reduces resistance in leadership of organization core duties.
HPR PAST PAPERS
KNEC JULY 2016
- State four financial publics of a company listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange
- The table below represents the public transfer process. Fill in the missing information to complete the process
Negative Situation Positive Situation
- List three limitations of using the bureaucratic style of management in a public relations department
- State three personal factors that may influence the formation of an individual’s attitude
- List three negative types of defense mechanism that may be exhibited by a frustrated employee
- Highlight three advantages of exhibitions as a media for public relations activities in an organization
- Give three reasons that make it necessary for the public relations professional body to enforce the code of conduct on its members
- Outline three responsibilities of the public relations department to the company’s distributors
- List three challenges that may be faced by modern public practitioners
- State the three components of personality as expounded by Sigmund Freud
- a)Explain six ways in which the public relations department of an organization can facilitate the media to report accurately during a crisis (9 marks)
- b) Highlight four techniques that may be used by public relations practitioners to change the attitude of a target audience (8 marks)
- a) Explain six benefits of engaging a consultancy firm to undertake public relations activities for an organization (9 marks)
- b) Outline four personality traits that an effective public relations manager should possess (8 marks)
- a)Give four reasons that make it necessary for managers to vary the techniques for enhancing human relations in an organization (8 marks)
- b) Outline six characteristics that an informal organization may display (9 marks)
- a)Highlight six objectives of public relations that an organization may seek to attain (9 marks)
- b) Give four reasons that make the government an important public for all business organization (8 marks)
- a)Explain four uses of a photo library in a public relations department of an organization (8 marks)
- b) Explain six factors that may influence the choice of media for public relations activities in an organization (9 marks)
KNEC JULY 2015
- List four elements that may constitute the corporate identity of an organization
- State three limitations of using consultants to carry out public relation activities for an organization
- Give three reasons that may make it necessary for an organization to call for a press conference
- Give three reasons that made it necessary to have a code of conduct in the public relations profession
- Outline three ways in which a manager may assist an employee who is going through frustration
- Give three reasons why it is important for employees to relate well among themselves in an organization
- Outline three factors that may make an employee develop a negative attitude
- List three theories of personality
- State three disadvantages of the bureaucratic style of leadership
- Give four reasons that make it necessary for an organization to clearly define its publics
- (a) The management of Makwenzi Limited usually communicates the company’s financial information to the organization’s publics. Outline four objectives of such communication (8 marks)
(b) Highlight six methods that may be used to determine the perception of publics towards an organization (9 marks)
- (a) Explain six factors that a public relations department may consider when planning to introduce a house journal in the organization (9 marks)
(b) Highlight four duties of a public relations officer in an organization (8 marks)
- (a) Give four reasons that make employees an important public an organization (8 marks)
(b) Explain six qualities that an effective public relations officer should possess (9 marks)
- (a) Explain six ways in which a manager may motivate employees in an organization (9 marks)
(b) Outline four indicators of frustration among employees in an organization (8 marks)
- (a) Outline six factors that determine social stratification in an organization (9 marks)
(b) It is necessary for managers to understand the attitude of their employees. Give four reasons why this is necessary (8 marks)
KNEC NOVEMBER 2015
- Give three reasons that motivate people to work
- State four characteristics of a bureaucratic type of organization
- List three environmental factors that may influence the formation of an employee’s personality
- State three techniques that a public relations assistant may use to assess the attitudes of the publics in an organization
- Outline three positive mechanisms which an employee may adopt to cope with frustration in the work place
- Outline the phases of the evolution of public relations practice
- Outline three benefits that an organization may get from clearly defining its publics
- List four qualities that an effective public relations officer should possess
- State three types of print media that may be used for communicating with employees in an organization
- List three limitations of using employees to implement an organization’s public relations programmes
- (a) Explain six non-financial ways through which the management of an organization may motivate its employees (9 marks)
(b) Outline four techniques that can be used to change the attitude of employees in an organization (8 marks)
- (a) Give six reasons that make it necessary for a public relations supervisor to understand the personality traits of employees (9 marks)
(b) Outline four ways through which the level of education may create different social classes among employees in an organization (8 marks)
- (a) Explain six work related issues that may cause frustration among public relations staff (9 marks)
(b) Outline four benefits that a practitioner may get from membership to a public relations professional body (8 marks)
- (a) Explain six factors that may influence the type of activities undertaken by the public relations department in an organization (9 marks)
(b) Explain four benefits that an organization may obtain from using social media to publicize its activities (8 marks)
- (a) Give four reasons for evaluating the success of public relations activities in an organization (8 marks)
(b) Outline six areas though which an organization may express its corporate identity
KNEC JULY 2014
- Outline four consequences that may be faced by an organization that does not establish a public relations department
- List three causes of frustration amongst employees in an organization
- State three factors that determine the social group that an employee may join in an organization
- State four factors that should be considered when planning a public relations programme in an organization
- Outline three measures that can be adopted to improve human relations in an organization
- State three publics that a hospital may have
- Highlight three elements of an organization’s corporate identity
- Outline three benefits that an organization may derive from conducting a customer service week
- State three organizational factors that may contribute to the development of attitude among employees in an organization
- Highlight three reasons that make it necessary for public relations officers to observe the professional code of conduct
- (a) Explain six benefits that an organization may derive from establishing an internal public relations department (9 marks)
(b) Highlight four signs of negative attitude towards work among employees in an organization (8 marks)
- (a) Outline four factors that should e considered when preparing audio visual materials for a public relations campaign (8 marks)
(b) Explain six consequences that may be faced by an organization which does not clearly define its publics (9 marks)
- (a) Highlight six limitations of bureaucracy as a management style (9 marks)
(b) Musa, the Public Relations Officer at Pwani Investments is organizing a public relations event. Explain four factors that he should consider when selecting the appropriate media to cover the event (8 marks)
- (a) The Public Relations Officer at Complexi Limited has discovered that some of the organization’s products in the market are faulty. Explain four measures that he may take to address this situation (8 marks)
(b) Explain six measures that the management of an organization may put in place in order to manage frustration among its employees (9 marks)
- (a) Explain four factors that may make a public relations programme fail to achieve its intended objectives (8 marks)
(b) Explain six benefits that the employees of an organization may derive from having an introvert Human Relations Manager (9 marks)