It refers to the process through which differing parties come up with a solution that is agreeable to both parties it may involve compromises by both parties. Negotiations can also be defined as the process through which one is able to get what he/she wants.


  1. Coexistence through negotiation people accommodate each other desires and beliefs. They are also able to resolve their differences in a friendly way thus live in peace.
  2. Conflict resolution – negotiations allows people to resolve their conflicts in a peaceful way without loss of live or damage to property. when there is conflict people engage in discussions and reach a peaceful compromise.
  3. Enhances interpersonal relations. in our relationship with other people we often have differences concerning issues through negotiations. We come up with agreements or solutions that leave each party feeling satisfied.
  4. Formation and maintenance of friendship. people who may not have been friends may engage in negotiation to resolve some differences between them during these processes or after the individuals may discover they have some things in common and a friendship may develop.
  5. Empathy enhanced – during negotiations the parties are given a chance to explain themselves this gives each party an opportunity to see the situation from the other point of view in therefore enables them to emphatize with each other.

Factors that enhance negotiations

  1. Assertiveness – when negotiating being assertive will enable you to stand up for what you want and defend your rights. passiveness may result in taken advantage of. Aggressiveness may lead to violence.
  2. Knowledge on the subject matter – being knowledgeable about the subject of negotiation gives you confidence and the ability to come up with alternatives.
  3. Effective communication – this ensures that you able to state your opinions and positions without being misunderstood.
  4. Empathy – you will be able to put yourself in the position of another. you will also understand why someone is taking a particular position. you will make harsh judgments and appropriate compromise.
  1. Self awareness – it ensures that we use our strengths and seek help over our weaknesses to ensure that the negotiations are successful.
  2. Calmness – it ensures that you are able to think clearly through issues. you will also be able to express yourself clearly and to listen to others. you will not engage in violence and disrupt the process.


  1. Business transaction – negotiation is necessary in order to get the best e.g. cut in prices or more items or better qualities.
  2. Conflict in relationships – sometimes we get into conflicts with the people we have a relationship with negotiation we can resolve the conflict and the relationship.
  3. Marriage – negotiation will be necessary to ensure no one feels taken advantaged of i.e. financial responsibility.
  4. Harmful traditional practices – there are certain cultural practices that may be harmful to our health go against our values or interfere with our goals for example early marriages or FGM.
  5. Human rights violation – the enjoyment of your right may violate the right of others therefore negotiation is needed inorder to avoid violating the rights of others e.g. listen to loud music as others want to read.
  6. When in risk situation of danger using negotiation you can get out of a risk situation without getting harmed. you can convince whoever is threatening you not to cause harm.
  7. Child neglect – i.e. not providing basic needs. the neglected child can engage the parent in negotiation inorder to rectify the situation.


The key steps are as follows:

  1. Establishing the key of concern –it means being clear about what you are disagreeing about.
  2. Identifying the parties involved –it include all those people who are involved in the process this will ensure that they accept the solution because they were involved in coming up with them.
  3. Presentations of ideas by the concerned parties –these concerned or their representatives explain their situation from their perspective. They also make suggestion on how to resolve the disagreement. Mutual points of agreement between the two parties should be identified.
  4. Consensus building –this means working to reach an agreement. it involves giving and taking where the parties concern make compromises and offers until an agreement is reached. You should make settlements that will last and be acceptable to both sides.


  1. Responsibility –as a responsible person you engage in negotiation to resolve a problem.
  2. Co-operation –co-operation ensures that people work together to resolve their differences and to reach an agreement.
  3. Honesty –when there is honesty all parties will feel well treated and be willing to pursue negotiation.
  4. Respect –it makes the parties more willing to accommodate each other to make compromises and offers that ensure consensus is reached.
  5. Tolerance –it enables you to be patient and understanding and accept others opinions.

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