These are activities that support the physical distribution of goods and they include;
- Warehousing – This is performance of administrative and physical functions associated with storage of goods and materials. The functions include receiving-identification-inspection-storage of goods for issue to production process-retrieving goods.
- Transportation – This is the movement of finished goods from production operation to consumer using various modes of transportation e.g. road, air, water and rail.
- Order processing – This is the efficient receipt of orders, processing the orders, ensuring efficient delivering and preparation of invoices for payment.
- Stock/inventory control – This is maintaining of stocks in sufficient levels to avoid overstocking and running out of stocks before the next delivering.
- Clearing and forwarding – Clearing and forwarding agents are service providers who assist importer/exporter to arrange for transport, documentation and customs clearance for international shipment.
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