Essentials of Effective Communication


Definition: Effective communication is a process of exchanging ideas, thoughts, knowledge and information such that the purpose or intention is fulfilled in the best possible manner. In simple words, it is nothing but the presentation of views by the sender in a way best understood by the receiver.

For communication to be effective it must be originated produced transmitted received understood and acted upon. The following are the main essentials to effective communications.

i) The sender/communicator

This is the person from whom the message originates. He/she encodes the message i.e. puts the message in the communicative form.

ii) Message

This is the information to be sent. It is the subject matter of communication and may contain words, symbols, pictures or some other forms which will make the receiver understand the message

iii) Encoding; This is the process of expressing ones ideas in form of words, symbols, gestures and signs to convey a message

iv)Medium/channel This refers to the means used in communicating. This could be in the form of letters, telephones and emails among others.

v)The receiver; This is the person for whom the message is intended. The receiver decodes the message for proper understanding.

vi)Decoding; This is the process of interpreting or translating the encoded message to derive the meaning from the message

vii) Feed-back; This refers to the reaction of the receiver of the message. This maybe a reply /response which the receiver sends back to the sender.

The above can be represented in a diagram as shown below;

essentials of effective communications

Effective Communication Skills are:


  1. Observance
  2. Clarity and Brevity
  3. Listening and Understanding
  4. Emotional Intelligence
  5. Self-Efficacy
  6. Self-Confidence
  7. Respectfulness
  8. Non-Verbal Communication
  9. Selection of the Right Medium
  10. Providing Feedback



  1. Clear Message
  2. Correct Message
  3. Complete Message
  4. Precise Message
  5. Reliability
  6. Consideration of the Recipient
  7. Sender’s Courtesy



  1. Employee Management
  2. Team Building
  3. Growth of the Organization
  4. Build Strong Relationships
  5. Ascertain Transparency and Develops Trust
  6. Facilitates Creativity and Innovation
  7. Reduces Misunderstanding
  8. Organisational Growth

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